Pierre Borgnat, Eric Fleury, Jean-Loup Guillaume, Clémence Magnien, Céline Robardet et Antoine Scherrer
Proceedings of NATO Advanced Study Institute on Mining Massive Data Sets for Security, IOS Press, 2008
Most real networks often evolve through time: changes of topology can
occur if some nodes and/or edges appear and/or disappear, and the types or weights
of nodes and edges can also change even if the topology stays static. Mobile devices
with wireless capabilities (mobile phones, laptops, etc.) are a typical example
of evolving networks where nodes or users are spread in the environment and
connections between users can only occur if they are near each other. This whois-
near-whom network evolves every time users move and communication services
(such as the spread of any information) will deeply rely on the mobility and on
the characteristics of the underlying network. This paper presents some recent results
concerning the characterization of the dynamics of complex networks through
three different angles: evolution of some parameters on snapshots of the network,
parameters describing the evolution itself, and intermediate approaches consisting
in the study of specific phenomena or users of interest through time.
Matthieu Latapy, Clémence Magnien and Nathalie Del Vecchio
Social Networks (2008), vol. 30, no1, pp. 31-48
Many large real-world networks actually have a 2-mode nature: their nodes may be separated into two classes, the links being between nodes of different classes only. Despite this, and despite the fact that many ad-hoc tools have been designed for the study of special cases, very few exist to analyse (describe, extract relevant information) such networks in a systematic way. We propose here an extension of the most basic notions used nowadays to analyse large 1-mode networks (the classical case) to the 2-mode case. To achieve this, we introduce a set of simple statistics, which we discuss by comparing their values on a representative set of real-world networks and on their random versions. This makes it possible to evaluate their relevance in capturing properties of interest in 2-mode networks.
Fabien Viger, Brice Augustin, Xavier Cuvellier, Clémence Magnien, Matthieu Latapy, Timur Friedman, and Renata Teixeira
Computer Networks 52-5 (2008), pp. 998-1018. Extended abstract published in the proceedings of the 6-th Internet Measurement Conference IMC’06, 2006, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Test of time award IMC 2022
Traceroute is widely used: from the diagnosis of network problems to the assemblage of internet maps. Unfortunately, there are a number of problems with traceroute methodology, which lead to the inference of erroneous routes. This paper studies particular structures arising in nearly all traceroute measurements. We characterize
them as « loops », « cycles », and « diamonds ». We identify load balancing as a possible cause for the appearance of false loops, cycles and diamonds, i.e., artifacts
that do not represent the internet topology. We provide a new publicly-available traceroute, called Paris traceroute, which, by controlling the packet header contents, provides a truer picture of the actual routes that packets follow. We performed measurements, from the perspective of a single source tracing towards multiple
destinations, and Paris traceroute allowed us to show that many of the particular structures we observe are indeed traceroute measurement artifacts.
Matthieu Latapy and Clémence Magnien
Infocom’08 Proceedings, Phoenix, USA
Complex networks, modeled as large graphs, received much attention during these last years. However, data on such networks is only available through intricate measurement procedures.
Until recently, most studies assumed that these procedures eventually lead to samples large enough to be representative of the whole, at least concerning some key properties.
This has crucial impact on network modeling and simulation, which rely on these properties. Recent contributions proved that this approach may be misleading, but no solution has been proposed. We provide here the first practical way to distinguish between cases
where it is indeed misleading, and cases where the observed properties may be trusted. It consists in studying how the properties of interest evolve when the sample grows, and in
particular whether they reach a steady state or not. In order to illustrate this method and to demonstrate its relevance, we apply it to data-sets on complex network measurements
that are representative of the ones commonly used.
The obtained results show that the method fulfills its goals very well. We moreover identify some properties which seem easier to evaluate in practice, thus opening interesting
Vincent D. Blondel, Jean-Loup Guillaume, Julien M. Hendrickx, Cristobald de Kerchove and Renaud Lambiotte
Phys. Rev. E 77, 036114 (2008)
We consider local leaders in random uncorrelated networks, i.e., nodes whose degree is higher than or equal to the degree of all their neighbors. An analytical expression is found for the probability for a node of degree k to be a local leader. This quantity is shown to exhibit a transition from a situation where high-degree nodes are local leaders to a situation where they are not, when the tail of the degree distribution behaves like the power law ~k^gamma_c with gamma_c=3. Theoretical results are verified by computer simulations, and the importance of finite-size effects is discussed.
Vincent D. Blondel, Jean-Loup Guillaume, Julien M. Hendrickx, and Raphaël M. Jungers
Phys. Rev. E 76, 066101 (2007)
We consider the problem of determining the proportion of edges that are discovered in an ErdsRényigraph when one constructs all shortest paths from a given source node to all other nodes. This problem is equivalent to the one of determining the proportion of edges connecting nodes that are at identical distance from the source node. The evolution of this quantity with the probability of existence of the edges exhibits intriguing oscillatory behavior. In order to perform our analysis, we introduce a different way of computing the distribution of distances between nodes. Our method outperforms previous similar analyses and leads to estimates that coincide remarkably well with numerical simulations. It allows us to characterize the phase transitions appearing when the connectivity probability varies.
Rémi Dorat, Matthieu Latapy, Bernard Conein and Nicolas Auray
Annals of Telecommunications (2007), vol. 62, no3-4, pp. 325-349
It is well known now that most real-world complex networks have some properties
which make them very different from random networks. In the case of interactions
between authors of messages in a mailing-list, however, a multi-level structure may
be responsible for some of these properties. We propose here a rigorous but simple
formalism to investigate this question, and we apply it to an archive of the Debian user
mailing-list. This leads to the identification of some properties which may indeed be
explained this way, and of some properties which need deeper analysis.
Jérémie Leguay, Matthieu Latapy, Timur Friedman, Kavé Salamatian
Computer Networks 51, pages 2067-2087, 2007. Extended abstract published in LNCS, proceedings of the 4-th IFIP international conference on Networking, 2005, Waterloo, Canada
This contribution deals with actual routes followed by packets on the internet at IP
level. We first propose a set of statistical properties to analyse such routes, which
brings detailed information on them. We then use the obtained results to suggest and
evaluate methods for generating artificial routes suitable for simulation purposes. This
also makes it possible to evaluate various network models. This work is based on large
data sets provided mainly by CAIDA’s skitter infrastructure.
Ravi Kumar and Matthieu Latapy
Theoretical Computer Science, special issue on Complex Networks, Volume 355, Number 1, 6 April 2006
Jean-Loup Guillaume and Matthieu Latapy
Physica A 371, pages 795-813, 2006. Extended abstract published in LNCS, proceedings of the 1-st international workshop on Combinatorial and Algorithmic Aspects of Networking CAAN’04, 2004, Banff, Canada
It appeared recently that the classical random graph model used to represent real-world complex networks does not capture their main properties. Since then, various attempts have been made to provide accurate models. We study here the first model which achieves the following challenges: it produces graphs which have the three main wanted properties (clustering, degree distribution, average distance), it is based on some real-world observations, and it is sufficiently simple to make it possible to prove its main properties. This model consists in sampling a random bipartite graph with prescribed degree distribution.
Indeed, we show that any complex network can be viewed as a bipartite graph with some specific characteristics, and that its main properties can be viewed as consequences of this underlying structure.
We also propose a growing model based on this observation.
Anne-Ruxandra Carvunis, Matthieu Latapy, Annick Lesne, Clémence Magnien and Laurent Pezard
Physica A 367, pages 585-612, 2006
The influence of the network topology on the dynamics of systems of coupled excitable
units is studied numerically and demonstrates a lower dynamical variability for power-law networks than for Poisson ones. This effect which reflects a robust collective excitable behavior is however lower than that observed for diffusion processes or network robustness. Instead, the presence (and number) of triangles and larger loops in the networks appears as a parameter with strong influence on the considered dynamics.
Pascal Pons and Matthieu Latapy
Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications (JGAA) vol. 10, no. 2, pages 191-218, 2006. Extended abstract published in LNCS, proceedings of the 20-th International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences ISCIS’05, 2005, Istambul, Turquie
Dense subgraphs of sparse graphs (communities), which appear in most real-world complex networks, play an important role in many contexts. Computing them however is generally expensive. We propose here a measure of similarities between vertices based on random walks which has several important advantages: it captures well the community structure in a network, it can be computed efficiently, and it can be used in an agglomerative algorithm to compute efficiently the community structure of a network. We propose such an algorithm, called Walktrap, which runs in time O(mn) and space O(n) in the worst case, and in time O(n log n) and space O(n) in most real-world cases (n and m are respectively the number of vertices and edges in the input graph). Extensive comparison tests show that our algorithm surpasses previously proposed ones concerning the quality of the obtained community structures and that it stands among the best ones concerning the running time.
Stevens Le Blond, Jean-Loup Guillaume and Matthieu Latapy
LNCS, proceedings of the 4-th International workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems IPTPS’05, 2005, Ithaka, New York, USA
We propose here an analysis of a rich dataset which gives an exhaustive and dynamic view of the exchanges processed in a running eDonkey system. We focus on correlation in term of data exchanged by peers having provided or queried at least one data in common. We introduce a method to capture these correlations (namely the
data clustering), and study it in detail. We then use it to propose a very simple and efficient way to group data into clusters and show the impact of this underlying structure
on search in typical P2P systems. Finally, we use these results to evaluate the relevance and limitations of a model proposed in a previous publication. We indicate some realistic
values for the parameters of this model, and discuss some possible improvements.
Pierre Fraigniaud, Philippe Gauron and Matthieu Latapy
LNCS, proceedings of the 11-th international conference Euro-Par, 2005, Lisbonne, Portugal
It appeared recently that user interests in a P2P system possess clustering properties that may be used to reduce significantly the amount of traffic of flooding-based
search strategies. It was also observed that they possess scale-free properties that may be used for the design of efficient routing-based search strategies.
In this paper, we show that the combination of these two properties make it possible to design an efficient and simple fully decentralized search strategy.
Further, simulations processed on real-world traces show that other unidentified properties hidden in actual queries make our protocol even more efficient, performing searches in logarithmic expected number of steps.
Jean-Loup Guillaume and Matthieu Latapy
Complex Systems 16, pages 83-94, 2005
In order to study some complex networks like the Internet, the Web, social networks or biological networks, one first has to explore them. This gives a partial and biased view of the real object, which is generally assumed to be representative of the whole. However, up to now nobody knows how and how much the measure influences the results.
Using the example of the Internet and a rough model of its exploration process, we show that the way a given complex network is explored may strongly influence the observed properties. This leads us to argue for the necessity of developing a science of metrology of complex networks. Its aim would be to study how the partial and biased view of a network relates to the properties of the whole network.
Jean-Loup Guillaume, Matthieu Latapy and Damien Magoni
Computer Networks 50, pages 3197-3224, 2006. Extended abstract published in the proceedings of the 24-th IEEE international conference Infocom’05, 2005, Miami, USA
Internet maps are generally constructed using
the traceroute tool from a few sources to many destinations.
It appeared recently that this exploration process
gives a partial and biased view of the real topology, which
leads to the idea of increasing the number of sources to improve
the quality of the maps. In this paper, we present a set
of experiments we have conducted to evaluate the relevance
of this approach. It appears that the statistical properties
of the underlying network have a strong influence on the
quality of the obtained maps, which can be improved using
massively distributed explorations. Conversely, some statistical
properties are very robust, and so the known values
for the Internet may be considered as reliable. We validate
our analysis using real-world data and experiments, and we
discuss its implications.
Fabien Viger and Matthieu Latapy
Extended abstract published in LNCS, proceedings of the 11-th international conference on Computing and Combinatorics COCOON’05, 2005, Kunming, Yunnan, Chine
We address here the problem of generating random graphs uniformly from the set of simple connected graphs having a prescribed degree sequence. Our goal is to provide an algorithm suitable for practical use both because of its ability to generate very large graphs (efficiency) and because it is easy to implement (simplicity). We focus on a family of heuristics for which we introduce optimality conditions, and show how this optimality can be reached in practice. We then propose a different approach, specifically designed for real-world degree distributions, which outperforms the first one. Based on a conjecture which we discuss rigorously and study empirically, we finally reduce the best asymptotic complexity bound known so far.
Jean-Loup Guillaume, Matthieu Latapy and Stevens Le-Blond
LNCS, proceedings of the 6-th International Workshop on Distributed Computing IWDC’04, 2004, Kolkata, India
Despite their crucial impact on the performances of P2P systems,
very few is known on peers behaviors in such networks. We propose
here a study of these behaviors in a running environment using a semicentralised
P2P system (eDonkey). To achieve this, we use a trace of the
queries made to a large server managing up to fifty thousands peers simultaneously,
and a few thousands queries per second. We analyse these
data using complex network methods, and focus in particular on the degrees,
their correlations, and their time-evolution. Results show a large
variety of observed phenomena, including the variety of peers behaviors
and heterogeneity of data queries, which should be taken into account
when designing P2P systems.
Jean-Loup Guillaume and Matthieu Latapy
Information Processing Letters (IPL) 90:5, pages 215-221, 2004
The analysis and modelling of various complex networks has received much attention in the last few years. Some such networks display a natural bipartite structure: two kinds of nodes coexist with links only between nodes of different kinds. This bipartite structure has not been deeply studied until now, mainly because it appeared to be specific to only a few complex networks. However, we show here that all complex networks can be viewed as bipartite structures sharing some important statistics, like degree distributions. The basic properties of complex networks can be viewed as consequences of this underlying bipartite structure. This leads us to propose the first simple and intuitive model for complex networks which captures the main properties met in practice.
Jean-Loup Guillaume, Matthieu Latapy and Laurent Viennot
LNCS, proceedings of the 3-rd international conference Web-Age Information Management WAIM’02, 2002, Beijing, Chine. Abstract published in the proceedings of the 11-th international conference World Wide Web WWW’02, 2002, Honolulu, Hawaï
In this paper, we propose a set of simple and efficient methods based on standard, free and widely available tools, to store and manipulate large sets of URLs and large parts of the Web graph. Our aim is both to store efficiently the URLs list and the graph in order to manage all the computations in a computer central memory. We also want to make the conversion between URLs and their identifiers as fast as possible, and to obtain all the successors of an URL in the Web graph efficiently. The methods we propose make it possible to obtain a good compromise between these two challenges, and make it possible to manipulate large parts of the Web graph.