Fabien Viger, Brice Augustin, Xavier Cuvellier, Clémence Magnien, Matthieu Latapy, Timur Friedman, and Renata Teixeira
Computer Networks 52-5 (2008), pp. 998-1018. Extended abstract published in the proceedings of the 6-th Internet Measurement Conference IMC’06, 2006, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Test of time award IMC 2022
Traceroute is widely used: from the diagnosis of network problems to the assemblage of internet maps. Unfortunately, there are a number of problems with traceroute methodology, which lead to the inference of erroneous routes. This paper studies particular structures arising in nearly all traceroute measurements. We characterize them as « loops », « cycles », and « diamonds ». We identify load balancing as a possible cause for the appearance of false loops, cycles and diamonds, i.e., artifacts that do not represent the internet topology. We provide a new publicly-available traceroute, called Paris traceroute, which, by controlling the packet header contents, provides a truer picture of the actual routes that packets follow. We performed measurements, from the perspective of a single source tracing towards multiple destinations, and Paris traceroute allowed us to show that many of the particular structures we observe are indeed traceroute measurement artifacts.